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Newar ist eine Ethnie in Nepal, die hauptsächlich im Kathmandutal angesiedelt ist. Ursprünglich stellte sie das Personal für diverse Dienste bei wichtigen religiösen Festen der Hauptstadt. Die Newar genießen hohes Ansehen und gehören zu den. Newar (नेवार) ist eine Ethnie in Nepal, die hauptsächlich im Kathmandutal angesiedelt ist. Ursprünglich stellte sie das Personal für diverse Dienste bei. Newari (auch: Nepal Bhasa, नेपाल भाषा) ist eine Sprache einer Volksgruppe in Nepal, den Newar, die am stärksten im Kathmandu-Tal vertreten sind. Bei den Newar handelt es sich um wahre Botschafter der künstlerischen Tradition, die zur Mehrheit der Bevölkerung des Katmandutals gehören und die fast zu. Newar. Die Newar sind die Ureinwohner des Kathmandu-Tals. Über ihre genaue Herkunft ist wie bei den Tharu fast nichts bekannt. Etwa die Hälfte der.

Newar

Die Newar sprechen ihre eigene Sprache – Newari oder auch Nepal Bhasa genannt –, die als tibeto-birmanische Sprache nicht mit dem indoarischen Nepali​. Newari (auch: Nepal Bhasa, नेपाल भाषा) ist eine Sprache einer Volksgruppe in Nepal, den Newar, die am stärksten im Kathmandu-Tal vertreten sind. Ein geflügeltes Wort besagt: Wenn man einen Newar fragt, ob er Hindu oder Buddhist ist, so antwortet er „Ja“ – nach 15 Jahrhunderten Umgang mit beiden. Retrieved 8 December Here to the latest National Censusthe population of Newar is 1,, which make up almost 5 percent of the total population of the country. Government Printing Office. Archived from the original PDF on 8 January They were the primary carriers of trade between Nepal and Tibet. Edinburgh: A. The Newa Autonomous State mandates to reconstruct the district division and create an autonomous Newa province. Asiatick Researches. Traditionally, at meals, festivals and gatherings, Newars sit on long mats in rows.

Newar Video

Are we fed lies regarding our ancient scriptures and religion? - Sanjeev Newar - TEDxIITIndore

Poetry consists of love songs, ballads, work songs, and religious poetry. The earliest poems date from the s. Epic poetry describing historical events and tragedies are very popular.

The ballads Sitala Maju , about the expulsion of children from Kathmandu, Silu , about an ill-fated pilgrimage to Gosaikunda , and Ji Waya La Lachhi Maduni , about a luckless Tibet trader, are sung as seasonal songs.

The dramas are based on stories from the epics, and almost all of them were written during the 17th and 18th centuries. The period — is known as the Nepal Bhasa renaissance period when writers defied official censure and braved imprisonment to create literary works.

Modern Nepal Bhasa literature began in the s with the emergence of new genres like short stories, poems, essays, novels and plays.

Newa Autonomous State is a proposed federal state of Nepal which establishes the historical native homeland of Newa people as a federal state.

The Newa Autonomous State mandates to reconstruct the district division and create an autonomous Newa province. There are also masked dance dramas known as Daboo Pyakhan which enact religious stories to the accompaniment of music.

Traditional Newa music consists of sacred music, devotional songs, seasonal songs, ballads and folk songs. The ballad describes the expulsion of children from Kathmandu in the early 19th century.

Another seasonal song Silu is about a pilgrimage to Gosaikunda that went wrong. Ji Waya La Lachhi Maduni is a tragedy song about a newly married couple.

The ballad Rajamati about unlucky lovers is widely popular. In , maestro Seturam Shrestha made the first recording of the song on gramophone disc in Kolkata.

Common percussion instruments consist of the dhimay, [67] khin, naykhin and dhaa. Wind instruments include the bansuri flute , payntah long trumpet and mwahali short trumpet , chhusya, bhusya, taa cymbals , and gongs are other popular instruments.

String instruments are very rare. Newa people call their music Dhime Baja. The musical style and musical instruments are still in use today.

Musical bands accompany religious processions in which an idol of a deity is placed in a chariot or portable shrine and taken around the city.

Devotional songs are known as bhajan may be sung daily in community houses. Hymn societies like Gyanmala Bhajan Khala hold regular recitals.

Dapa songs are sung during hymn singing seasons at Temple squares and sacred courtyards. Gunla Bajan musical bands parade through the streets during Gunla, the 10th month of the Nepal Sambat calendar which is a holy month for Newar Buddhists.

Seasonal songs and ballads are associated with particular seasons and festivals. Music is also played during wedding processions, life-cycle ceremonies and funeral processions.

The Newars are the creators of most examples of art and architecture in Nepal. Newar devotional paubha painting, sculpture and metal craftsmanship are world-renowned for their exquisite beauty.

Building elements like the carved Newar window , roof struts on temples and the tympanum of temples and shrine houses exhibit traditional creativity.

From as early as the seventh century, visitors have noted the skill of Newar artists and craftsmen who left their influence on the art of Tibet and China.

Besides exhibiting a high level of skill in the traditional religious art, Newar artists have been at the forefront of introducing Western art styles in Nepal.

Raj Man Singh Chitrakar is credited with starting watercolor painting in the country. Bhaju Man Chitrakar — , Tej Bahadur Chitrakar and Chandra Man Singh Maskey were other pioneer artists who introduced modern style paintings incorporating concepts of lighting and perspective.

Fine brickwork and woodcarving are the marks of Newar architecture. Most of the chief monuments are located in the Durbar Squares of Kathmandu , Lalitpur and Bhaktapur , the old royal palace complexes built between the 12th and 18th centuries.

Newa architecture consists of the pagoda , stupa , shikhara , chaitya and other styles. The valley's trademark is the multiple-roofed pagoda which may have originated in this area and spread to India, China, Indochina and Japan.

Durbar squares, temple squares, sacred courtyards, stupas, open-air shrines, dance platforms, sunken water fountains, public rest houses, bazaars, multistoried houses with elaborately carved windows and compact streets are the characteristics of traditional planning.

Besides the historical cities of Kathmandu , Lalitpur , Bhaktapur , Madhyapur Thimi , Chovar , Bungamati , Thankot and Kirtipur , small towns with a similar artistic heritage dot the Kathmandu Valley where almost half of the Newar population lives.

Colonies of expatriate Newar merchants and artisans existed in Lhasa , Shigatse and Gyantse in Tibet till the mids when the traditional trade came to an end after the Sino-Indian War.

Newar religious culture is rich in ceremony and is marked by frequent festivals throughout the year.

Street celebrations include pageants, jatras or processions in which a car or portable shrine is paraded through the streets and sacred masked dances.

Other festivals are marked by family feasts and worship. The celebrations are held according to the lunar calendar, so the dates are changeable.

Mohani Dasain is one of the greatest annual celebrations which is observed for several days with feasts, religious services, and processions.

During Swanti Tihar , Newars celebrate New Year's Day of Nepal Sambat by doing Mha Puja , a ritual in which a mandala is worshipped, that purifies and strengthens one spiritually for the coming year.

Similarly, Bhai Tika is also done during Swanti. It is a ritual observed to worship and respect a woman's brothers, with or without blood relation.

In some cases, a real cow may also be a part of the parade. People give such participants money, food and other gifts as a donation.

Usually, children are the participants of the parade. In Kathmandu, the biggest street festival is Yenya Indra Jatra when three cars bearing the living goddess Kumari and two other child gods are pulled through the streets and masked dance performances are held.

The two godchildren are Ganesh and Bhairav. Another major celebration is Pahan Charhe when portable shrines bearing images of mother goddesses are paraded through Kathmandu.

During the festival of Jana Baha Dyah Jatra , a temple car with an image of Karunamaya is drawn through central Kathmandu for three days.

A similar procession is held in Lalitpur known as Bunga Dyah Jatra [95] which continues for a month and climaxes with Bhoto Jatra, the display of the sacred vest.

Paanch Chare is one of the many occasions or festivals celebrated by the Newa community, natives from Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.

This is celebrated on the Chaturdasi Pisach Chaturdashi day according to new lunar calendar on the month of Chaitra. Western wear is the norm as in urban areas in the rest of the country.

Ritual dresses consist of pleated gowns, coats and a variety of headresses. Traditionally, Newar women wear a shoe made out of red cloth, Kapa lakaan.

It is decorated with glitters and colorful beads potya. Meals can be classified into three main categories: the daily meal, the afternoon snack and festival food.

The daily meal consists of boiled rice, lentil soup, vegetable curry and relish. Meat is also served. The snack generally consists of rice flakes, roasted and curried soybeans, curried potato and roasted meat mixed with spices.

Food is also an important part of the ritual and religious life of the Newars, and the dishes served during festivals and feasts have symbolic significance.

Traditionally, at meals, festivals and gatherings, Newars sit on long mats in rows. Typically, the sitting arrangement is hierarchical with the eldest sitting at the top and the youngest at the end.

Newar cuisine makes use of mustard oil and a host of spices such as cumin, sesame seeds, turmeric, garlic, ginger, mint, bay leaves, cloves, cinnamon, pepper, chilli and mustard seeds.

Newar people are much innovative in terms of cuisine. They have a tradition to prepare various foods according to the festivals. Some of the popular cuisines that are prepared with the festivals are:.

Elaborate ceremonies chronicle the life cycle of a Newar from birth till death. Hindus and Buddhists alike perform the "Sorha Sanskaar Karma" or the 16 sacred rites of passage, unavoidable in a Hindu person's life.

On the fourth day, he disrobes and returns to his family and henceforth becomes a householder Buddhist for the rest of his life. During the ritual, the young boy renounces family and lineage for the celibate religious life.

Having this symbolically fulfilled the ascetic ideal, he can be called back by his family to assume the life of a householder and his eventual duty as a husband and a father.

It is performed at the age of six or eight months for boys and at the age of five or seven months for girls.

It is a ceremony in which pre-adolescent girls are "married" to the bael fruit wood apple , which is a symbol of the god Vishnu.

It is believed that if the girl's husband dies later in her life, she is not considered a widow because she is married to Vishnu, and so already has a husband that is believed to be still alive.

This is done in her odd number year like 7,9 or 11 before mensuration. She is kept in a room for 12 days hidden and is ceremonially married to the sun god Surya.

Jankwa or Janku is an old-age ceremony which is conducted when a person reaches the age of 77 years, seven months, seven days, seven hours, seven minutes, seven-quarter.

The first Janwa is called "Bhimratharohan", the second "Chandraratharohan", the third "Devaratharohan", and the fourth "Divyaratharohan".

After the second Jankwa, the person is accorded deified status. The next ceremony common to both boys and girls is marriage and the rituals performed are similar to most normal Hindui marriages.

The Newar custom, similar to that of Hindus, is that the bride almost always leaves home at marriage and moves into her husband's home and adopts her husband's family name as her own.

Cross-cousin and parallel-cousin marriage is forbidden. Marriage is usually arranged by parents who use a gobetween lamee.

Marriage by elopement is popular in some peripheral villages. The games which had been played by prasanga people from their ancient time can be classified as Newa games.

Kana kana pichha Blindfold game , Piyah a game played with stone by pushing stone within the marks drawn in the ground , Gatti another game played with stone by hand , pasa are some games played by Newar people since ancient time.

Nyatapola Temple in Bhaktapur. Swayambhunath in Kathmandu. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Ethnic group in Kathmandu Valley.

For the language, see Newar language. Main article: Newa sub-communities. Main article: Nepal Bhasa. Main article: Nepal alphabets.

Main article: Nepal Bhasa literature. Main article: Newa Autonomous State. Main article: Newa dance. Main article: Newa music. Main article: Newa art.

Main article: Newa architecture. Main article: Traditional Newar clothing. Main article: Newa Cuisine. Further information: Ihi. Further information: [[: Bahra ceremony ]].

Statue in Lalitpur. Census of Nepal, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. Nepami: An Idol of Yalambar. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute.

Page University of California Press. Retrieved 22 May European Journal of Sociology. Retrieved 2 May National Geographic.

The New York Times. Retrieved 11 July Central Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original PDF on 17 July Retrieved 24 May Page 4.

Princeton University. Page vii. Contentious Politics and Democratization in Nepal. University Press of Kentucky.

Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 22 March Retrieved 5 May Page 7. Page 1. Glimpses of Nepal.

Maha Devi. Retrieved 2 December Archived from the original on 17 April Wisdom Publications. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Archived from the original on 14 July Retrieved 8 May Kathmandu: Royal Nepal Academy. Medieval Indian literature: an anthology, Volume 3.

Retrieved 19 February Asiatick Researches. London: Vernor and Hood. Retrieved 29 May Pages — Kathmandu Metropolitan City.

Retrieved 18 May Nepali Times. Retrieved 27 April Retrieved 1 May Nepal's new constitution comes into force on Sunday, but minorities say it privileges Hindus.

Over Indigenous Tharus killed during Kailali carnage, Lawmakers claim. Who is Newar? Newar are one among 59 indigenous peoples recognized so far by government of Nepal.

They call themselves Nepa or Newa. Newars are found in every part of the country and beyond the boundry, but they are the original habitants of Kathmandu valley, the capital city of modern Nepal.

As early as 7 th century BC, the Nepal valley was settled by a Tibeto-Burman speaking Mongoloid people who later founded the Kirat dynasty.

About the second century AD, the Kirat rule was replaced by the Lichhavi from north Bihar who spoke Prakit but used Sanskrit for sacramental purpose.

Newar are also said to be the descendent of Kirat people who inhibited the land in the past. Newar speak their own mother tongue which belongs to Tibeto-Burman language family, with rich ancient and modern literatures going back to the 14 th century.

During the Malla period, from 13 th century till its downfall in , the then king themselves played significant role in promoting Newar literature.

Newars include people of both Mongoloid and Caucasoid extractions. They practice both Hinduism and Buddhism. They have their distinct culture having long history, which is heavily influenced by Buddhism as well as Hinduism with remnants of ancient Kirat culture.

They have a distinct way of life, customs and traditions of Newar. They are very famous for the skills of woodcarving.

Newars are one of the very few indigenous nationalities who have been urban oriented and made great success in politics, bureaucracy, arts and architecture.

Guthi is the religious cum social management customary institution of Newar. It by now has been associated with a kind of land tenure system, religious and philanthropic endowments, foundations, trusts, oil-processing cooperatives.

The traditional Newar Guthis are basically of three types: clan based, lineage based and territory based.

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Newar Video

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